The MRV will require monitoring of fuel consumption, CO2-emissions, cargo and other parameters for all voyages to or from EU ports. Yearly average data will be made publicly available on individual ship basis.
Four ways of monitoring
The fuel consumption can be monitored in four different ways: bunker delivery notes, fuel tank monitoring, fuel flow measurements or direct monitoring of CO2 emission. The way cargo is calculated varies between ship types. Actual mass of cargo is most common but also unit weight (e.g. for TEU and lane-meter) multiplied by occupancy can be used in some cases. Estimating fuel consumption from bunker delivery notes, or calculating cargo from number of units, are believed to give significant uncertainties in the results for emissions of CO2 per transport work (g CO2/tonne-NM).
Drawbacks identified with MRV, in addition to these uncertainties, are that other green-house gases, such as methane, not are included, and that upstream emissions, from fuel production and fuel transportation, also are excluded. Further, the reporting procedures for biogenic CO2 are still unclear.
Opportunities with MRV-data
However, when large amounts of data are made public in the summer of 2019 there will be an opportunity to improve benchmarking and emission calculations, especially related to transport work, which is important for increasing accuracy of emission inventory studies and cost-benefits studies of shipping. It is also suggested that the uncertainties in the calculation process and data collection should be studied further.