Stricter emission legislation is also expected in Japan and the Mediterranean. By 2020 introduction of stricter shipping fuel sulphur
regulations will be in force (max. 0, 5% sulphur levels) within the entire European Union, and globally latest in 2025.
Additional ECA areas are also expected in Japan and the Mediterranean Sea, including redcusing such emissions as particles and black carbon. There is demand for solutions to be implemented in the near future (2020 perspective) as well as long-term solutions (2050 perspective).
Alternative fuels thus need to have minimal negative environmental effects with regards to combustion emissions or by accidental spillage. All new technologies and energy carriers must be evaluated from a sustainability perspective, such as lifecycle analysis or other environmental system analysis methods.
- Alternative fuels and fuel production for combustion engines, including evaluation of the fuel chain with regards to methanol, liquid natural gas (LNG), etc.
- Production of electro fuels and its role in the energy chain as energy storage.
- Development of energy and emission efficient engine concepts for alternative energy carriers.
- Electricity as an energy carrier, through diesel-electric operation, hybrid operation, electric power in local applications, energy storage in batteries and solar cells.
- Development of alternative propulsion fuels and saving energy through wind propulsion.